Description4-1BB, also known as CD137 and TNFRSF9, is an approximately 30kDa transmembrane glycoprotein in the TNF receptor superfamily. 4-1BB functions in the development and activation of multiple immune cells (1). Mature rat consists of a 166 amino acid (aa) extracellular domain (ECD) with four TNFR cysteine-rich repeats, a 21 aa transmembrane segment, and a 48 aa cytoplasmic domain. Within the ECD, rat 4-1BB shares 60% and 79% aa sequence identity with human and mouse 4-1BB, respectively. 4-1BB is expressed as a disulfide-linked homodimer on various populations of activated T cells including CD4+, CD8+, memory CD8+, NKT, and regulatory T cells (2-5) as well as on myeloid and mast cell progenitors, dendritic cells, mast cells, and bacterially infected osteoblasts (6-9). It binds with high affinity to the transmembrane 4-1BB Ligand/TNFSF9 which is expressed on antigen presenting cells and myeloid progenitor cells (6, 10). This interaction co-stimulates the proliferation, activation, and/or survival of the 4-1BB expressing cell (2-5, 10). It can also enhance the activation-induced cell death of repetitively stimulated T cells (10). Mice lacking 4-1BB show augmented T cell activation, perhaps due to its absence on regulatory T cells (11). 4-1BB can associate with OX40 on activated T cells, forming a complex that responds to either ligand and inhibits Treg and CD8+ T cell proliferation (12). Reverse signaling through 4-1BB Ligand inhibits the development of dendritic cells, B cells, and osteoclasts (6, 9) but supports mature dendritic cell survival and co-stimulates the proliferation and activation of mast cells (7, 8). 4-1BB activation enhances CD8+ T cell and NK cell mediated anti-tumor immunity (13). It also contributes to the development of inflammation in high fat diet-induced metabolic syndrome (14). Soluble forms of 4-1BB and 4-1BB Ligand circulate at elevated levels in the serum of rheumatoid arthritis and hematologic cancer patients, respectively (15, 16).
|Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles. 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 degreesC as supplied. 1 month, 2 to 8 degreesC under sterile conditions after reconstitution. 6 months, -20 to -70 degreesC under sterile conditions after reconstitution.|
|Lyophilized from a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS with Trehalose. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS. with No Preservative|
|CyTOF, Flow Cytometry, Immunocytochemistry|
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