DescriptionCalcineurin binding protein (Cabin-1) and the corresponding rat homolog, designated Cain, are widely expressed nuclear phosphoproteins that regulate the serine/threonine phosphotase activity of calcineurin and influence T cell signaling and apoptosis. Calcineurin is required for the transcriptional activation of cytokines and the activation of various transcription factors, including NFAT, NFκB and AP-1, involved in T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated signaling. The regulation of calcineurin depends on the changes in intracellular calcium concentrations and the activity of protein kinase C. TCR activation results in PKC inducing the hyperphosphorylation of Cabin-1, which facilitates the high affinity binding of Cabin-1 to calcineurin. This complex formation, in turn, inhibits calcineurin activity and attenuates TCR-mediated signaling. Cabin-1 also associates directly with MEF-2 proteins, a family of transcription factors that regulate apoptosis signaling in T cells. This association between Cabin-1 and MEF-2 leads to the inhibition of MEF-2-mediated gene transcription and the inhibition of apoptosis.
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