Description: The 14D3 monoclonal antibody reacts with human CD152, also known as cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4). CTLA-4, a protein with structural similarities to CD28, is expressed on activated T cells (activated B cells may also express CTLA-4) and binds the B7 family members, CD80 (B7-1) and CD86 (B7-2), with higher affinity than CD28 does. CTLA-4 and CD28 appear to deliver opposing signals to T cells: while CD28 is a potent costimulator, CTLA-4 restricts the progression of T cells to an activated state by inhibiting IL-2 secretion and cellular proliferation. The cytoplasmic portion of CTLA-4 contains ER retention motifs, resulting in intracellular localization of a large proportion of newly synthesized CTLA-4 in response to TCR signaling. The 14D3 antibody also recognizes rhesus monkey and has inhibitor activity. Applications Reported: The 14D3 antibody has been reported for use in flow cytometric analysis and immunoblotting (WB). 14D3 has also been reported in in vitro inhibition studies. (Please use Functional Grade purified 14D3, cat. 16-1529, in functional assays.). Applications Tested: The 14D3 antibody has been tested by intracellular staining and flow cytometric analysis of PHA stimulated normal human peripheral blood cells using the Intracellular Fixation & Permeabilization Buffer Set (cat. 88-8824) and protocol.Please refer to Best Protocols: Protocol A: Two step protocol for (cytoplasmic) intracellular proteins located under the Resources Tab online. This can be used at less than or equal to 0.25 μg per test. A test is defined as the amount (μg) of antibody that will stain a cell sample in a final volume of 100 μL. Cell number should be determined empirically but can range from 10^5 to 10^8 cells/test. It is recommended that the antibody be carefully titrated for optimal performance in the assay of interest. Furthermore, due to the intracellular localization of a large portion of CTLA-4, for complete detection it may be necessary to assess intracellular expression, in addition to surface expression of CTLA-4. Purity: Greater than 90%, as determined by SDS-PAGE. Aggregation: Less than 10%, as determined by HPLC. Filtration: 0.2 μm post-manufacturing filtered. CTLA4 (Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4) is a CD28-family receptor expressed on mainly CD4+ T cells. It binds the same ligands as CD28 (CD80 and CD86 on B cells and dendritic cells), but with higher affinity than CD28. However, in contrast to CD28 which enhances cell function when bound at the same time as the T cell receptor, CTLA4 inhbits the T cell and prevents it from functioning. Intracellular CTLA4 is also found in regulatory T cells and may be important to their function.
|Human, Rhesus Monkey|
|PBS with 0.09% sodium azide; pH 7.2|
|Flow Cytometry, Functional Assay, Neutralization|
For Research Use Only.
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