DescriptionTranscriptional factor CTCF is a ubiquitously expressed 11-zinc finger domain containing, DNA-binding nuclear phosphoprotein that is involved in multiple aspects of normal gene regulation including transcriptional repression and activation, gene silencing, chromatin insulation and regulation of imprinted sites. CTCF uses different combinations of ZF domains and interacts with the CCCTC motif on the DNA. It can bind to HAT- and HDAC-containing complexes thereby influencing transcriptional activation or repression respectively. It is a multifunctional protein involved in the transactivation of APPB gene, silencing of c-myc gene, and insulation of human beta-globin and DMI myotonic dystrophy locus and imprinting control of IGF2 and H19 regions. CTCF has also been shown to regulate the transcription of Pax6 and IRAK2 promoter thereby opening a therapeutic avenue. Mutations in this gene have been associated with invasive breast cancers, prostate cancers and Wilms' tumors.
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