Description: The tbykt monoclonal antibody reacts with the human Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERa) molecule. Estrogen receptor is a member of the superfamily of nuclear receptors, which are ligand-dependent transcription factors. The human estrogen receptor becomes activated following the binding of estrogen, causing a dissociation of the chaperone protein (Hsp90) and dimerization with either ERa or ERb. The alpha and beta receptors share some homology within their DNA- and ligand- binding domains, but signal in different ways and play different roles in gene regulation. Following activation, Era can directly bind to DNA through EREs (estrogen response elements) or through a more indirect pathway by binding to other transcription factors (Sp1, AP-1, NF-kB, FoxA1 and others). Era binding to DNA can either upregulate or repress gene expression. The alpha receptor has been implicated in the development and progression of breast cancer and its presence is indicative of improved survival and a better response to endocrine therapy (anti-estrogen therapy- tamoxifen). Applications Reported: This tbykt antibody has been reported for use western blotting, immunohistochemical staining, immunocytochemistry, and immunohistochemical staining of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissue sections.Applications Tested: This tbykt antibody has been tested by immunohistochemistry of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded human tissue using low pH or high pH antigen retrieval and can be used at less than or equal to 0.5 µg/mL. This tbykt antibody has been tested by immunocytochemistry of fixed and permeabilized human cells and can be used at less than or equal to 1.0 µg/mL. This tbykt antibody has been tested by western blot of reduced HeLa cell lysate and can be used at less than or equal to 5.0 µg/mL. It is recommended that the antibody be carefully titrated for optimal performance in the assay of interest. Purity: Greater than 90%, as determined by SDS-PAGE. Aggregation: Less than 10%, as determined by HPLC. Filtration: 0.2 µm post-manufacturing filtered. Estrogen Receptors (ER) are members of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily of nuclear receptors. The estrogen receptor is a ligand-activated transcription factor, that when bound to estrogen hormone, induces a conformational change that allows dimerization and binding to estrogen response elements (ERE) in DNA. When bound to EREs, ER can positively or negatively regulate gene transcription through the recruitment of coactivator or corepressor proteins. There are two different forms of the estrogen receptor, alpha and beta, encoded by separate genes (ESR1 and ESR2, respectively). Due to alternative RNA splicing, at least 4 estrogen receptor-alpha isoforms are known to exist (Isoform 1 (66 kDa), Isoform 2 (53 kDa), Isoform 3 (47 kDa), Isoform 4 (35 kDa)). Estrogen receptors are widely expressed in different tissue types and are essential for sexual development and reproductive function. They also play a role in other tissues such as bone. Estrogen receptors are involved in pathological processes including breast cancer, endometrial cancer, and osteoporosis.
|Estrogen Receptor alpha|
|Immunocytochemistry, Immunofluorescence, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin), Western Blot|
|PBS with 0.09% sodium azide; pH 7.2|
For Research Use Only.
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