Description: The monoclonal antibody eBio3A3-N2 reacts with human IL-21, a potent stimulator of NK and cytolytic T cells. IL-21 is a 131 amino acid protein most closely related to IL-2 and IL-15. Expression is found in CD4+ cells upon activation. In addition to its effect on NK cells, IL-21 stimulates proliferation of B-cell stimulated by crosslinking of the CD40 antigen and stimulates the proliferation of bone marrow progenitor cells and the expression of the NK-cell marker CD56 in the presence of IL-15. Applications Reported: This eBio3A3-N2 (3A3-N2) antibody has been reported for use in intracellular staining followed by flow cytometric analysis. Applications Tested: This eBio3A3-N2 (3A3-N2) antibody has been pre-titrated and tested by intracellular staining of restimulated, Th17-polarized normal human peripheral blood cells. This can be used at 5 µL (0.5 µg) per test. A test is defined as the amount (µg) of antibody that will stain a cell sample in a final volume of 100 µL. Cell number should be determined empirically but can range from 10^5 to 10^8 cells/test. Staining for IL-21 has shown donor variability. stimulation times may vary depending on the donor and should be optimized. Increased staining levels have been observed on Th17-polarized normal human peripheral blood cells. Excitation: 488-561 nm; Emission: 578 nm; Laser: Blue Laser, Green Laser, Yellow-Green Laser. Filtration: 0.2 µm post-manufacturing filtered. IL-21 is a 17 kDa immunomodulatory cytokine produced mainly by Natural Killer Cells (NKT), T helper (Th) 17 and T follicular helper (TFH) cells. In TFH cells, IL-21 expression leads to autocrine signaling through the IL-21 receptor (IL-21R) and STAT3, which leads to additional transcriptional activation by Bcl6. As with IFN gamma for Th1 and IL-4 for Th2 cells, IL-21 is critical for TFH cell development and effector function. IL-21 plays a role in T cell-dependent B cell differentiation into plasma cells and memory cells, stimulation of IgG production and induction of apoptotic signaling in naive B cells. In Th17 cells, IL-21 expression and autocrine feedback through STAT3, IRF4 and ROR gamma t lead to upregulation of the IL-23R, thereby preparing Th17 cells for maturation and maintece by the inflammatory cytokine IL-23. While upregulating IRF4 and ROR gamma t, IL-21 also mediates the downregulation of Foxp3. IL-21 deficient mice are protected from developing colitis upon chemical treatment by their inability to upregulate Th17-associated molecules. In comparison, elevated levels of IL-21 are present in chemically-induced colitis mouse models.
|4° C, store in dark, DO NOT FREEZE!|
|PBS with 0.1% gelatin, 0.2% BSA and 0.09% sodium azide; pH 7.2|
For Research Use Only.
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