DescriptionTumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-α) also known as Cachectin, is the prototypic ligand of the TNF superfamily. It is a pleiotropic molecule that plays a central role in inflammation, apoptosis, and immune system development. TNF-α is produced by a wide variety of immune and epithelial cell types (1, 2). Rat TNF-α consisits of a 35 amino acid (aa) cytoplasmic domain, a 21 aa transmembrane segment, and a 179 aa extracellular domain (ECD) (3). Within the ECD, rat TNF-α shares 94% aa sequence identity with mouse and 69-76% with bovine, canine, cotton rat, equine, feline, human, porcine, and rhesus macaque TNF-α. The 26kDa type 2 transmembrane protein is assembled intracellularly to form a noncovalently linked homotrimer (4). Ligation of this complex induces reverse signaling that promotes lymphocyte co-stimulation but diminishes monocyte responsiveness (5). Cleavage of membrane bound TNF-α by TACE/ADAM17 releases a 55kDa soluble trimeric form of TNF-α (6, 7). TNF-α trimers bind the ubiquitous TNF RI and the hematopoietic cell-restricted TNF RII, both of which are also expressed as homotrimers (1, 8). TNF-α regulates lymphoid tissue development through control of apoptosis (2). It also promotes inflammatory responses by inducing the activation of vascular endothelial cells and macrophages (2). TNF-α is a key cytokine in the development of several inflammatory disorders (9). It contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes through its effects on insulin resistance and fatty acid metabolism (10, 11).
|Protein A or G purified from cell culture supernatant|
|Supplied as a solution in PBS. *Small pack size (SP) is supplied as a 0.2 μm filtered solution in PBS. with No Preservative|
|Use a manual defrost freezer and avoid repeated freeze-thaw cycles. 12 months from date of receipt, -20 to -70 degreesC as supplied. 1 month, 2 to 8 degreesC under sterile conditions after reconstitution. 6 months, -20 to -70 degreesC under sterile conditions after reconstitution.|
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