Description: This MILAN8R monoclonal antibody recognizes human and mouse extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (also known as ERK1/2, p44/p42, or MAPK3/1) when phosphorylated on T202/Y204. ERK1/2 belong to a family of conserved serine/threonine protein kinases known as mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that are involved in many cellular programs such as proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival. ERK1/2 signaling is activated in response to numerous extracellular stimuli including mitogens, growth factors, and cytokines. The primary activators of ERK1/2 are MEK1 and MEK2 which act by phosphorylating the activation loop residues T202/Y204 and T185/Y187 in ERK1 and ERK2, respectively. Several downstream targets of ERK1/2 have been identified, including p90RSK and the transcription factor Elk-1. ERK1/2 are negatively regulated by MAPK phosphatases, known as DUSPs or MKPs, as well as by chemical inhibitors of MEK including U0126 and PD98059. Disruption of the ERK pathway is common in many types of cancer. Specificity of this MILAN8R clone was determined by ELISA, flow cytometry, and western blotting. Applications Reported: This MILAN8R antibody has been reported for use in intracellular staining followed by flow cytometric analysis. Applications Tested: This MILAN8R antibody has been pre-titrated and tested by intracellular staining followed by flow cytometric analysis of normal human peripheral blood cells. This can be used at 5 µL (0.125 µg) per test. A test is defined as the amount (µg) of antibody that will stain a cell sample in a final volume of 100 µL. Cell number should be determined empirically but can range from 10^5 to 10^8 cells/test. Staining Protocol: We recommend using Protocol C: Two-step protocol: Fixation/Methanol. Protocol A: Two-step protocol: intracellular (cytoplasmic) proteins and Protocol B: One-step protocol: intracellular (nuclear) proteins cannot be used. All Protocols can be found in the Flow Cytometry Protocols: "Staining Intracellular Antigens for Flow Cytometry Protocol" located in the Best Protocols Section under the Resources tab online. Excitation: 488-561 nm; Emission: 578 nm; Laser: Blue Laser, Green Laser, Yellow-Green Laser. Filtration: 0.2 µm post-manufacturing filtered. ERK1 and ERK2 are widely expressed and are involved in the regulation of meiosis, mitosis, and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. Many different stimuli, including growth factors, cytokines, virus infection, ligands for heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein (G protein)-coupled receptors and transforming agents, activate the ERK1 and ERK2 pathways. When growth factors bind to the receptor tyrosine kinase, Ras interacts with Raf, the serine/threonine protein kinase and activates it as well. Once actived, Raf phosphorylates serine residue in 2 further kinases, MEK1/2, which in turn phosphorylates tyrosine/threonine in extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. Upon activation, the ERKs either phosphorylate a number of cytoplasmic targets or migrate to the nucleus, where they phosphorylate and activate a number of transcription factors such as c-Fos and Elk-1.
|Phospho-ERK1/2 (Thr202, Tyr204)|
|4° C, store in dark, DO NOT FREEZE!|
|PBS with 0.1% gelatin, 0.2% BSA and 0.09% sodium azide; pH 7.2|
For Research Use Only.
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